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NEWSROOM: Understanding the what, where and why of electric vehicle charging

Dec 10, 2020

The What

It can seem daunting to wrap your head around some of the variables involved in electric vehicle charging. Understanding it requires some new thinking about how your vehicle gets energy – namely, how much any given charger can deliver, and how much your vehicle can take.

All Volkswagen ID.4 models will come with a 120-volt or Level 1 [1] charger that’s best used for occasional or last-minute charging; think of it as filling a bathtub with a straw. Most Volkswagen ID.4 owners will likely choose to add a Level 2 charger at home [2], which typically require a 240-volt plug (like those used for large home appliances) or are hard-wired into your circuits.

What can be a bit challenging is that “Level 2” chargers have a variety of energy levels, and not all EVs can take as much energy as some Level 2 chargers can deliver. The important number for a Level 2 charger is its amperage rating, or how much electricity it pulls, which ranges from as low as 12 amps up to 80 amps, although most have a rating between 16 amps to 30 amps.

Because batteries store energy in direct current, and U.S. homes run on alternating current, every EV comes with an on-board AC/DC converter. The Volkswagen ID.4 has a powerful 11 kW onboard converter, which means a Level 2 charger with 50 amps can completely recharge the ID.4 in about seven and a half hours, and more common Level 2 chargers will take longer. [3]

The speediest recharge for EVs comes from DC fast charging – think of it as a fire hose instead of a straw. Using industrial-grade transformers and special plugs, these units provide a large flow of direct current that batteries can absorb much faster. Here too, DC fast chargers have different levels; almost all offer at least 50 kW of current, but some stations can offer far more to handle larger battery packs.

As with Level 2 charging, individual EVs have their own DC fast charging limits. The Volkswagen ID.4 can accept up to 125 kW of public DC fast charging, providing 5-80 percent charge in about 38 minutes [4], and the Electrify America network offers fast chargers with up to 350 kW.

The Where

According to the U.S. Department of Energy, about 80 percent of EV charging today happens at home. That’s understandable given the types of EVs sold so far in America; many have less than 200 miles of range and aren’t used for long-distance trips. But an electric driven future will require a public charging system that’s closer to what gasoline-powered vehicles enjoy today, and many companies including Volkswagen and Electrify America are working to make that a reality.

If you don’t already drive an EV, you may not realize just how many stations already exist or how widespread they are. Currently, there are more than 28,000 public EV charging stations nationwide, from Lubec, Maine, to Princeville, Hawaii. Of those, about 4,100 are DC fast charging stations, with about 2,700 are available to Volkswagen ID.4 owners with its standard CCS plug.

The Volkswagen ID.4 comes with three years of unlimited public DC fast charging on the Electrify America network at no additional cost. [5],  As of today, the Electrify America network has more than 500 DC fast charging stations with more than 2,200 individual DC fast chargers nationwide, including 150 stations in California alone. Electrify America already has two DC fast charging cross-country routes that the Volkswagen ID.4 Pro S and 1st edition models could drive coast-to-coast using its manufacturer’s estimated range of 250-miles[6] , and on major interstates has DC fast chargers every 70 miles on average, with more being added.

As most DC fast chargers aren’t part of a network, payments and connections can sometimes be a challenge. When the ID.4 arrives early next year, owners will be able to use the Electrify America app to find stations and connect for high-speed charging.

The why

Several surveys show concern over charging as a major barrier for people considering switching to electric vehicles. What’s often missed are the major benefits of charging versus liquid fuel – namely that charging can happen during those hours your car usually spends parked. Between at-home charging, public stations around workplaces and DC fast chargers for long-distance trips, the options for charging your EV grow daily.

There’s also the potential for cost savings. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, at 13 cents per kilowatt-hour of electricity and 15,000 miles per year, charging at home with the Volkswagen ID.4  could cost on average nearly $700 less than driving a new vehicle that gets average fuel economy at the same distance. Over five years, that could add up to $3,500 in fuel savings [7].

And of course, as the U.S. electric grid moves towards renewables and other forms of lower- or zero-carbon energy, so too will the energy you use for driving. It is why Volkswagen Group has committed more than $30 billion to build millions of EVs globally. You may not plug in your vehicle today, but once you experience the benefits, you likely never go back to the old way of getting energy in your car.

 

 

[1] 110V charging hardware included with the vehicle. Optional cabinet, installation and wiring costs are extra and will vary. See your participating dealer for details.

[2] L2 wallbox charger not included with vehicle purchase and may require extra installation and wiring costs.

[3] For example, a 30 amp Level 2 charger providing 7.2 kW completes a full charge in around 11 and a half hours. Charging times will vary and depend on a variety of factors, including ambient temperature, charger type, battery condition and initial state of charge, vehicle condition and others.

[4] ID.4 equipped with fast charging capability maximum rate of 125kW.  Based on charging at a 125kW or higher charger.  Charging times will vary and depend on a variety of factors, including ambient temperature, charger type, battery condition and initial state of charge, vehicle condition and others.  Frequent and consecutive fast charging can permanently decrease battery capacity.

[5] Available on MY21 ID.4 vehicles.  Non-transferable.  Not available for commercial use, such as ridesharing.  Requires Electrify America account, app, and acceptance of Terms of Use. After user-initiated charge session stop or vehicle reaches full charge, and 10-min grace period, Idle Fees will apply and user is responsible.  In the event of suspected fraud or abuse or other unforeseen events, Volkswagen of America may discontinue or modify the offer in its sole discretion.

[6] The ID.4 Pro S and 1st Edition EPA estimated total range is 250 miles. Actual mileage and range will vary and depend on several factors including driving and charging habits, accessory use, temperature and topography, battery age, load, and vehicle condition. Battery capacity decreases with time and use. See owner’s manual for details.

[7] Claim based on driving 15,000 miles per year using U.S. Energy Information Administration (eia.gov) data available at time of publication for average gasoline and kW-hr projected prices for 2021-2025 and average EPA new vehicle MPG of 27 for MY21 vehicles. Assumes home charging of ID.4. Actual savings, if any, will vary and depend on several factors including location, driving and charging habits, fuel price fluctuations, temperature and topography, accessory use, battery age, load, and vehicle condition

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